The key to using music to teach modern physics, in my mind, is harmonic analysis. Harmonic analysis is nothing other than Fourier analysis, a tool which is highly valued in physics and engineering. It is not widely known by the non-scientist, yet it is easy to explain in the musical context—when someone looks at a graphic equalizer on their stereo they are looking at a real-time Fourier amplitude analysis of the music that is being played. One can explain how the synthesis of harmonics affects the timbre of musical sound—how the coefficients in a Fourier series can describe different real functions. A very simple example is the comparison between the organ pipe and the piano string. The ‘stopped’ organ pipe has only odd-numbered harmonics and the piano has all harmonics. (Because the ‘stopped’ organ pipe has a pressure node at one end and a pressure antinode at the other, whereas a string has nodes at both ends.) The different symmetry of the boundary conditions accounts for a major aspect of the difference in the timbre of the organ and the piano.That's from The birth of the blues: how physics underlies music by J.M. Gibson. Via Physics and Physicists
If you're a regular Broken Symmetry reader, then you should know already that it is not only music that can be understood better with Fourier Analysis, but any time-series that can be decomposed into ocillations of different frequency, including cash-flows. The balance sheet is sort of like the graphic equalizer, except that the frequency of the accounts is not rigorously ordered in terms of liquidity. If it were, then the analogy would be complete.